Sunday, June 7, 2020

Turbine

Turbine

The turbine is a mechanical device which converts the kinetic energy into mechanical power by the help of bucket and blades, it is also called energy-producing devices. when fluid enters through the nozzle and strikes to bucket or blade, then the rotor is started rotating because blades or buckets are fixed on the rotor. and the rotor is coupled with other equipment like a multistage pump, compressors, and generator, etc.


Block diagram of a steam turbine

Type of turbines

The turbine is categorized by four bases point

On the type of working

1.Steam turbine 
2.Hydraulic turbine 
3.Gas turbines

The direction of fluid flow for action

1.Axial flow
2.Vertical flow

On the action of the fluid

1.Velocity compounding 
2.Pressure compounding
3.Velocity and pressure compounding

On the principle of working, there are three types of turbine

1.Impulse (Pelton wheel)
2.Reaction (Francis and Kaplan)
3.Gravity type

Impulse

This type of turbine is driven by very fast velocity jet fluids. Direct strike on the bucket and the expansion of the steam takes place and shaft stars rotate. In the impulse type turbine, the clearance between the rotating and stationary surface is greater than the reaction type turbines.

Reaction 

The reaction turbine is fully immersed with fluid with fully enclosed pressure casing. in reaction turbine steam flow by guide mechanisms and then flow through the rotating blades.

Gravity type

It is driven by the weight of water entering the top of the turbine and falling to the bottom where it is released.

impulse-vs-reactio-turbine

Steam turbine

The steam turbine is operating with a high steam pressure jet that converts the kinetic energy of the system into mechanical power. The steam turbine is always considered as a prime mover steam turbine is mostly used in power sectors like power plants, refinery, petrochemical, power generations, and other services.
It is also used to drive critical equipment turbomachinery likes compressor, generators, multistage pumps another rotating equipment.

steam turbine

Advantages and disadvantages of the steam turbines

Advantage

  1. It has high efficiency as compared to other turbines steam engines.
  2. It is run with high rotational speed, and it can be used for a wide range of operating speeds.
  3. The flywheel not required for continuation power output.
  4. The power given to the machinery is uniform it is available in a variety of equipment like low speeds, high speeds.
  5. Vibration is very less due to less rubbing part use in equipment.
  6. Comparatively low initial costs are less expensive for maintenance.
  7. It is available in very high overload capacities.
  8. Steam is free of oil contamination and no internal lubrication is needed.

Disadvantage

  1. The installation cost is very high, it is more expensive than the other turbine.

Internal and external part list


The internal and external parts of the steam turbine buckets, blades, pressure casing, rotors runners,’ nozzles, spray nozzles, velocity jet nozzles, bearings, bearing housing, seals, shaft seal, control valves.

The main external part of the steam turbine 

Steam strainer steam

Steam strainer install in the unit lines suction line of the steam turbine to prevent the foreign materials being carried out into the turbine with steam install very close to throttling valves

Throat valve

The function of the throttle valve age to control the system entering the steam turbine throttling and acting as a closing emergency valve. Total balls should we maintain very carefully and always lubricating its part otherwise it could not be work properly.

Operating governors

emergency governors auxiliary lube oil pump evolving systems earrings like thirst wearing sir tilting pad bearings main bearings soft packings shaft coupling turbine wheels pressure and temperature gauges.

Question about turbines and steam turbines

What is the function of the turbine?

The function of the steam turbine is to generate the power and other forms of power (rotating) by utilizing the fluid-like as a liquid, gas, steam, etc.

How does steam turbine work?

The steam turbine is work by using the steam, the high-temperature steam with very high-pressure jet directly strike to spinning rotors blades through the nozzle the kinetic energy of the steam is converted into the mechanical energy (rotating) of the turbine. the generated rotary motion they are particularly suited for a drive the other rotating equipment like pumps, compressor, the generator is used for electrical power generation systems and other activity. Where the steam turbine is coupled with equipment’s live pump compressor are power generators.

Where is the turbine used?

1.Power generation
2.Refinery, petrochemical
3.Food processing
4.Gas processing unit
5.West to energy

What different types of turbines?

Type or classification of a steam turbine are following

Nature of the action of the turbine

1.Impulse
2.Reaction

On the base of steam supply and exhaust condition

1.Reheat
2.Mixed pressure
3.Condensing and non-condensing 

By shaft position of the turbine

1.Horizontal
2.Vertical

The direction of steam flow

1.Axial flow
2.Radial flor
3.Tangential flow

How many types of turbines reaction turbines?

Mainly two types of a reaction turbine, Kaplan and Francis 

How many types of impulse turbine?

There are three types of impulse turbine Pelton Turgo and Crossflow

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