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Types of Pumps: A Comprehensive Guide

Type of pumps

There are many different types of pumps that can be used for a variety of applications. From electric and air-operated pumps to manual and hydraulic ones, each has its own characteristics that make it suitable for certain tasks. In this guide, we’ll discuss the different types of pumps, their features, and how to choose the right one for your needs.
Pumps are used for extracting the liquid and transfer one source of liquid to another source. Pumps are used in many industries like refineries, petrochemicals, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, power plants, hospitality and home application etc. It is also a very useful mechanical device. On the basis of working and construction pumps classification into many types. On other site

Types of pumps

Classification of pump

  1. Positive displacement pump
  2. Centrifugal pump (Dynamic pump)

Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump is a mechanical device. They are the most commonly used type of pump because they are efficient, reliable, and easy to use. They move liquid or gas by using an impeller that rotates inside a chamber to create pressure. The rotating action forces liquid through the outlet as more liquid is pulled from the inlet side. This pump can be used for a wide range of applications, from moving small volumes of liquids over short distances to transferring large amounts of fluids at great distances. These type of pump also use in water treatment plants.

It is work on the principle of centrifugal force. Impeller is rotated by driver (turbine or motor) in the pump casing. Impeller sucks the liquid through the impeller eye from low pressure. After the rotating of the impeller pushes the liquid outward in casing and discharges the liquid through nozzle. Centrifugal pump is also called dynamics pump. The centrifugal pump converts the kinetic energy of the liquid to pressure energy. There are many types of centrifugal pumps, for learning more, go to the next lecture of centrifugal pump.

Positive displacement pump

Positive Displacement Pumps use an enclosed chamber to trap a fluid, such as a liquid or gas. As the chamber compresses, it forces the trapped fluid through its outlet. These pumps are typically used for transferring or metering fluids and gases in high-pressure applications. They have fewer moving parts than centrifugal models, making them more reliable and easier to maintain. They also require less energy to operate, making them an ideal choice for many industrial processes.
Positive displacement pump used to transfer of fixed volume of liquid with high pressure. The pump sucks the liquid from suction line and discharges the liquid to discharge line of the system. Positive displacement pump is mostly used for transfer of high viscus fluid with high pressure as compared to dynamics pump. There are two types of positive displacement pump,
  1. Rotary pump
  2. Reciprocating pump
In the Rotary pump there are mainly types of pump listed below, like gear pump.
  1. Screw pump
  2. Lobe pump
Reciprocating pump classified into mainly two categories.
  1. Piston pump
  2. Plunger type pump
  3. Diaphragm pump
Reciprocating pumps are classified on the basis of acting There are two types of reciprocating pump mentioned below
  1. Single acting reciprocating pump
  2. Multi acting reciprocating pump

Rotary pump

Rotary pump is a positive displacement pump. It is used for transfer of the high viscous fluid with high pressure and constant volume. This type of pump discharges fluid with fixed volume liquid in each rotation. This is the second most popular pump in the industry after the centrifugal pump. Mostly it is used for discharge lube oil and other clean fluid.

Gear pump

This is type of positive of displacement (Rotary) pump. Gear pump is use for transfer high viscose and clean fluid like lube oil, paints and other type of fluids. Gear pumps is use in many industries like oil and gas, petrochemical and other pharmaceuticals’ industries. The gear pump transfer liquid by gives force energy  to liquid and discharge the constant values of liquid. Gear pump operated at very high speed and give pulsations free flow. It is also self priming pump. Due to the very close clearance between the internal parts and casing of gear pumps cause. During long time of operation Internal wear increases’. And reduce the efficiency and increase maintenance cost downtime. There are two types of gear pumps.
  1. Internal gear pump
  2. External gear pump

Lobe pump

Lobe pumps is also work like external gear pump. It can also handle semi-solid liquid, there are two lobes uses in lobe pump, but they are not directly connected in between, put them some clearances. That’s clearance maintained by timing gears lobe pump many seals used. It is mostly used paper and pulp and food industries. Lobe pump can also handle slurry and other high viscus fluid.

Screw pump

Screw pump use two or three screw in closed casing system. This is also used for lubrication purpose for rotating equipment. This is used for deliver uniform flow with low pressure. Because of the screw pump have low efficiency so that produce very less noise as compared to other positive displacement pump. It is less expensive than gear pump. It is also used of variety of industries.

Piston pump

Piston pump used for high flow with high pressure. As compared to other positive displacement pump. Piston pumps is a combination of piston, suction valve, discharge valves, piston rod and connecting rod. It has also additional disadvantage because, it is highly extensible, more complicate and complex, its maintenance cost is also high. Generally, two types of piston pumps are used in industries, single acting pump and double acting pump, in single acting pump discharge only one side of the cylinder and double acting pump discharge of the fluid in both end of the cylinder (backward and forward) movement.

Diaphragm and Metering Pumps

Diaphragm and metering pumps are reciprocating pumps that use flexible diaphragms to transport liquids. They have the advantage of being able to achieve high accuracy for precise liquid flow rates. Metering pumps are often used in water treatment systems, to control chlorine and pH balances, while diaphragm pumps are usually used for oil transfer in lubrication systems and also for cooling systems.

It is also a type positive displacement pump. And it is a combination of diaphragm and piston. In this pump piston is not directly contacted with service because diaphragm use between service liquid and piston. They are also used very high pressure and uniform flow. It is also very expensive and high maintenance cost, the diaphragm material could be plastic, Teflon, synthetic, and rubber etc. Diaphragm pumps have very complex design and maintenance. Diaphragm pump used to transfer high viscous fluid like salaries oil and other services.

Plunger pump

Plunger pump is a type of positive displacement pump. The plunger pump is a combination of piston and plunger systems, used reciprocating motions for transfer of fluid.  

Turbine and Submersible Pumps

Turbine and Submersible pumps are two types of Positive Displacement Pumps. Turbine pumps use a turbine-like impeller to force fluids through confined pathways. They often have specially designed components, such as nozzles, to provide additional pressure. Submersible pumps are used in applications where it’s necessary to submerge the pump below the surface of a liquid or even deep within the earth’s crust. These pumps use an enclosed system to pressurize liquids, sometimes in applications where high pressures are required.

Reciprocating Pumps

In reciprocating pumps, a plunger or diaphragm takes the fluid and forces it forwards in one direction and then backwards in the opposite direction at a controlled rate. This process is repeated to create a pressure that pushes the liquid through the system. Reciprocating pumps are often used for high-pressure applications, such as pressurization of water heaters, cooling systems and boilers. They offer benefits such as low noise levels and energy efficiency when compared to other types of pumps.

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