What is the ASTM A106 standard?
ASTM A106 is used as a standard of seamless carbon steel pipe and tubes for high-temperature service, like steams 750 degrees F and others. ASTM A106 is equivalent to ASME SA106 or also called ASME SA106 as a second name. It is mostly used in refineries, chemical industries, and power plants when gasses or fluids are transferred at high temperatures and pressures services. This is covering three grades like ASTM A106 Grade A, ASTM A106 Grade B, ASTM A106 Grade C. ASTM’s full form is the American Society for Testing and Materials; it is an American standard. This standard is used in Indian boiler regulation (IBR) for piping systems and compiles all the requirements for the same. But before the start of fabrication work, you have to need to take approval from the IBR inspector if its services came in IBR.
Chemical composition in % ASTM A106
Note- For any reduction of 0.01% below the specified carbon maximum, an increase of 0.06% of manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.35%.
Mechanical Properties of ASTM A106 for Grades A, B & C
What is the meaning of Grades A, B, and C?
Specification of ASTM A106 Grades A, B, and C
The higher-grade material that ASTM A106 receives, the strength of that grade pipe is also higher in the sense of strength compression C>B>A.
ASTM A106 Grade A
Grade A, is used as softer steel, which means it is easy to bend. A indicates a ferrous metal it is recommended for use in close coiling and cold bending applications. ASTM A106 Grade A piping available in size range .5 inches to 36 inches. The strength of Pipe grade A is less than grade B & grade C.
ASTM A106 Grade B
ASTM A106 Grade B pipe materials bear higher stress than grade A and the strength of Pipe grade B material is less than grade C but higher than grade A. This is most common of grade use in industries and compared to other due it is almost appropriate to grade C. but less expensive than grade C pipe. This is mainly suited for machining operations and uses for the same
ASTM A106 Grade C
ASTM A106 Grade C has higher tensile strength and yield strength than Grades A & B. This is available in sizes less than 2” it is produced as a cold-drawn product and in sizes more than 2” it is usually produced as a hot finished product. Cold-drawn types of products usually have a good surface finish with better dimension control. The dimensions and details of the ASTM a106 pipe fix or change with the application in which it is used. ASTM a106 pipe is usually available in between 10.3 to 114.3mm in wall thickness as per your application. ASTM a106 grade A has a lower strength than all other two grades but it is still very useful for many applications. The carbon percentage for Grade A is the lowest than another grade approx. 0.25%.
ASTM A106 Grade B is a mild steel pipe material usually used in industrial plants. Grade B has a carbon percentage that usually ranges around 0.30% which is higher than grade A but not as strong as grade C.
ASTM A106 Grade C has an apex carbon percentage of around 0.35%. That shows why grade C is the strongest in all three grades and that is used when dealing with the stronger projects. Pipe size NPS 1-1/2″ and below are available in the hot-finished or by cold-drawn type. Pipes of NPS 2 inches and above are generally hot rolled.
What kind of welding can be used in ASTM a106 Grade B?
Welding is a process to fabricate or repair the piping with the help of fitting (flange, elbow, Tees, and etc) and other piping’s. However, there is information to be required about the alterations mechanically / metallurgically welding. Before starting weld, the pipes, welding heat cycle should be known, especially about the behavior of the residual stresses. The main objective of the part of this work was to evaluate the welding residual stress in small diameter pipes lines used in the petrochemical, oil & gas, refineries, and chemical industry.
2” diameter pipes welded by the manual gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process with American Welding Society (AWS) ER70S-3 (welding wire for tig and MIG welding applications) filler rods and with a thickness of 2.5 mm and 3.25 mm has to be employed. The electronic power was used, together with data acquisition systems to control the welding parameters.
Stress measurements were checked with an X-ray mini diffractometer. The axial residual stress profiles determined in the outer surface area of the pipes were formed by compressive stresses. in the weld region (the fusion zone and heat-affected zone) and for tension stresses in the areas more distant from the weld bead. The evidence suggested that on the inner surface of the pipes, the stress profile is the opposite of that observed for the outer surface, with tension stress in the welding zone and compressive stress in the region further from the weld bead.
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