LOTO (Lockout-Tagout) is a safety procedure used in industries to protect workers from the unexpected startup or release of energy from machines or equipment during maintenance or servicing activities. It involves the use of locks and tags to isolate and control energy sources, preventing the accidental activation of machinery and ensuring the safety of personnel involved. This comprehensive overview will guide you through the key principles and steps involved in implementing an effective LOTO program.
Understanding the Purpose of LOTO:
The primary objective of LOTO is to safeguard employees from hazardous energy sources by effectively isolating and controlling them. This prevents the inadvertent release of stored energy, which can cause serious injuries or fatalities. LOTO is designed to create a safe working environment during maintenance, repair, or servicing operations.
Identifying Energy Sources:
Conduct a thorough assessment to identify all potential energy sources within the equipment or machinery. These can include electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal, chemical, or gravitational energy sources. Understanding and documenting these sources is crucial for effective implementation of LOTO procedures.
Developing LOTO Procedures:
Create comprehensive and site-specific LOTO procedures that outline step-by-step instructions for safely isolating and controlling energy sources. These procedures should consider the specific equipment, energy sources, and tasks involved. Ensure clear and detailed instructions are provided for each energy source, including specific isolation points, lockout/tagout devices required, and any additional precautions.
Training and Communication:
Train employees on the importance of LOTO procedures, their roles, and responsibilities in implementing them correctly. Provide thorough training on the identification of energy sources, proper lockout/tagout techniques, and the use of LOTO devices. Encourage open communication and ensure that all employees understand the potential hazards associated with failure to follow LOTO procedures.
Before initiating a lockout/tagout, ensure that all machinery and equipment are properly shut down, and any residual energy is dissipated or released. Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines or established procedures to ensure equipment is in a safe state for maintenance or servicing. This may involve shutting off power, closing valves, bleeding air or fluids, or any other necessary actions to render the equipment inert.
Applying Lockout-Tagout Devices:
Use lockout devices to secure energy isolation points and prevent the accidental reactivation of equipment. These devices should be robust, standardized, and not easily removable. Each authorized employee performing maintenance tasks should have their own unique lock and key. Additionally, use tags to provide information about the ongoing maintenance work, including the name of the authorized personnel, expected completion time, and contact details.
Verification and Testing:
After implementing lockout/tagout devices, verify the effectiveness of the isolation by testing the equipment or machinery to ensure it cannot be activated. This testing should be conducted using proper procedures and precautions to prevent accidental energization. Only authorized personnel should perform this verification step.
LOTO Removal and Equipment Start-Up:
Once maintenance or servicing is complete, follow specific procedures for LOTO removal. This typically involves a verification process to ensure all tools and personnel are clear from the equipment. Communicate with all affected personnel, remove locks and tags, and restore energy sources gradually following established start-up procedures. Conduct a final inspection to confirm that all LOTO devices have been removed, and the equipment is functioning properly.
Where LOTO is required?
When a workman is required to remove guard, maintenance job on equipment or any part needed to be change of the equipment. Tagout never should be use alone to isolate energy any types.
Accomplished by individuals placing personal lock and tags directly on the point of isolation.
Person is change as responsible for keeping all the hazardous energy source hazardous material and Electrical.
Requirement for Lockout-Tagout devices
- Following requirements are adhered to while applying Lockout-Tagout Devices must be Substantial enough to present removal without excessive force.
- Clearly indicating details of employee who installed the device.
- Uniquely identified.
- With one key only.
Five colored locks for different disciplines are defined: Red – Electrical, Yellow – Mechanical, Black – Process, Blue – Instrument, Green – Other.
When more than one agency or involved in the job each authorized person must affix his on personal lock and tags before beginning any work.
Multi-lock devices shall be used as need for additional locks Tag-out devices.
Who it effected?
- LOTO impacts life of worker and facility’s.
- Three categories to stake holders include.
- Authorized employees who are specifically trend and perform and maintain LOTO.
- Affects employees who work with or near the equipment being serviced who are trained to recognized LOTO but not perform for Lockout-Tagout activities.
Effective Energy Control
Let know about the four-key compartment to an effective energy control program LOTO produced that outline specify step and requirement authorized employees need to complete safe lockout of the equipment.
A periodic inspection should follow for check workman are follow loto procedure properly or not, review and update the same. Give the LOTO training to all employee and work man.
Main point for to apply LOTO
- Shutdown perpetration – Locate all power sources that power the device. Each source should is identified on the lockout process of the instrument.
- Notifications – Inform all affected employees and teams that you are ready to start the lockout process.
- Shutdown – Turn off the device by following its normal shutdown procedure and isolate the services line also.
- Isolation – Disconnect the equipment by turning off the energy at the main power source. Apply a lockout device and tag — Apply the lock to each energy stripping device to a suitable lockout device, each lockout point that is detailed in the lockout process.
- The lockout tag that goes with it should clearly indicate who applied the lockout device.
- If many people are going to work on one piece of equipment, each must apply their own lock to the isolation device.
- This will ensure that the energy source remains closed until each worker removes their own lock.
- Discarding or securing any stored energy – this may include draining valves, releasing hydraulic pressure, closing moving parts, or in the process.
- Verification – Turn off the power by attempting to restart the device after electrical isolation. Once verified, the equipment returns to the switch off position.
Tagout picture, (do not operate tag)
- All indication Gauges, transmitter, and indicators should be check before the LOTO removed from energy source to confirm is that work is completed or not. Drains can become blocked and not function properly as designed.
- When verifying isolation, personnel must be taking precautions to avoid any other putting themselves at risk or creating additional hazards.
Step for LOTO before staring the job
- To Start LOTO – know the type, amount, hazards and control methods of energy
- Review the activity to be conducted for which LOTO is to be done
- Review relevant standards and procedures
- Secure relevant P&ID, plans, drawings, etc. As necessary
- Prepare plan of action i.e., Work Clearance Document.
Step for Removing LOTO and Restoring Equipment
- Safeguard employees, ensure all are clear of the equipment.
- Alert employees on re-energization.
- Verify all tools have been removed and all guards reinstalled.
- Remove LOTO devices.
- Energize equipment.
Safe Work Closure (before putting the equipment in normal operation).
- Check if all the barricades, notices, etc. Are removed.
- Check if all Permits to Work associated with the equipment are closed
- Check if all lock-out devices are returned to their respective designated locations.
- Observe for any abnormal sound, vibration, etc.