Grow Mechanical

What is reciprocation compressor Pdf

What is reciprocation compressor

A reciprocating compressor is a type of mechanical device used to compress gases, typically air or other gases, by reducing their volume and increasing their pressure. These compressors are commonly used in various industrial applications, including refrigeration, air conditioning, natural gas processing, and petrochemical plants.

how a reciprocating compressor works:

Cylinder and Piston: The core components of a reciprocating compressor include one or more cylinders with pistons inside them. The number of cylinders can vary depending on the specific compressor design and its intended application.

Intake Stroke

During the intake stroke, the piston moves downward within the cylinder. As it descends, it creates a low-pressure area in the cylinder, causing the intake valve to open. This allows the gas (or air) from the surrounding environment to enter the cylinder.

Compression Stroke

After the cylinder is filled with gas, the intake valve closes, and the piston starts moving upward. As the piston moves up, it compresses the gas within the cylinder. The compression increases the pressure and temperature of the gas.

Discharge Stroke

Once the gas is sufficiently compressed, the discharge valve opens. The piston continues its upward motion, forcing the compressed gas out of the cylinder and into the discharge line. This high-pressure gas is then directed to the desired destination, such as a storage tank or a downstream process.

Exhaust Stroke

After the gas is discharged, the piston begins its downward stroke again. The exhaust valve closes, and any remaining gas in the cylinder is expelled through a separate exhaust port.

What is reciprocation compressor Pdf download here

Repeat: The reciprocating compressor continues this cycle of intake, compression, discharge, and exhaust strokes repeatedly to maintain a continuous supply of compressed gas.

Reciprocating compressors are known for their ability to deliver high-pressure ratios and are suitable for applications where a high level of compression is required. They are also known for their durability and reliability but can have a more complex and maintenance-intensive design compared to other types of compressors.

The efficiency and performance of reciprocating compressors can vary depending on factors like design, materials, and operating conditions. They are often used in situations where a steady and controlled supply of compressed gas is needed, such as in industrial settings and for specific refrigeration and air conditioning applications.reciprocation compressor

Types of reciprocating compressors

Reciprocating compressors come in various types, each with its own characteristics, capacity, and efficiency. Here are some common types of reciprocating compressors:

  • Single-Acting Reciprocating Compressor
  • Double-Acting Reciprocating Compressor
  • Diaphragm Reciprocating Compressor
  • Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor
  • Semi-Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor
  • Open Reciprocating Compressor
  • Low-Speed Reciprocating Compressor

Single-Acting Reciprocating Compressor:

    • Capacity: Single-acting compressors are generally used for lower capacity applications, typically ranging from 1 to 30 tons of refrigeration or 1 to 30 horsepower in industrial applications.
    • Efficiency: They are relatively efficient for small to medium-sized applications but may have lower efficiency compared to other types for larger capacities.

Double-Acting Reciprocating Compressor:

    • Capacity: Double-acting compressors are capable of handling higher capacities compared to single-acting compressors. They can range from 20 to 10,000 horsepower or more, depending on the design.
    • Efficiency: They are known for their better efficiency and performance, especially in larger capacity applications.

Diaphragm Reciprocating Compressor:

    • Capacity: Diaphragm compressors are used in applications requiring very high compression ratios and low flow rates. They are typically used for gas compression in the chemical and petrochemical industries.
    • Efficiency: They can achieve high efficiency in handling gases at extremely high pressures but may have limitations in terms of capacity.

Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor:

    • Capacity: Hermetic compressors are sealed compressors that are commonly used in small to medium-sized refrigeration and air conditioning systems, with capacities ranging from less than 1 ton to around 10 tons of refrigeration.
    • Efficiency: They are known for their compact design and good efficiency in smaller cooling applications.
Semi-Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor:
    • Capacity: Semi-hermetic compressors are used in medium to large refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Capacities can range from 10 tons to over 100 tons of refrigeration.
    • Efficiency: They offer a balance between capacity and efficiency, making them suitable for a wide range of commercial and industrial applications.
Open Reciprocating Compressor:
    • Capacity: Open compressors are used in industrial applications where high capacities are required. They can range from medium to very high capacity, depending on the design.
    • Efficiency: Efficiency can vary widely depending on the specific design and application, but they are often chosen for their ability to handle heavy-duty tasks.
Low-Speed Reciprocating Compressor:
    • Capacity: Low-speed compressors are typically used in applications where low noise and vibration are critical. Capacities can vary from small to large, depending on the design.
    • Efficiency: They are known for their high efficiency and reliability but may have lower capacity compared to high-speed compressors.

It’s important to note that the capacity and efficiency of reciprocating compressors can vary depending on factors like design, operating conditions, and the type of gas being compressed. Additionally, ongoing advancements in compressor technology may lead to improvements in both capacity and efficiency for various types of reciprocating compressors. Therefore, it’s essential to consult with manufacturers and experts to select the most suitable compressor type for a specific application.

Components of reciprocating compressors

Here is a list of the main components of a reciprocating compressor:

  • Piston
  • Cylinder
  • Crankshaft
  • Intake valve
  • Connecting rod
  • Discharge valve
  • Frame or casing
  • Lubrication system
  • Compression chamber
  • Cooling system (for some compressors)
  • Drive motor (for motor-driven compressors)

Reciprocating compressors consist of several essential components that work together to compress gases. Here are the key components of a reciprocating compressor:

  • Cylinder: The cylinder is a cylindrical chamber in which the compression process occurs. It houses the piston and valves and provides the space for the gas to be compressed.
  • Piston: The piston is a movable component that travels back and forth inside the cylinder. It is attached to a crankshaft and is responsible for compressing the gas when it moves within the cylinder.
  • Crankshaft: The crankshaft is connected to the piston and converts the linear motion of the piston into rotary motion. It is responsible for driving the compressor.
  • Connecting Rod: The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft and transmits the piston’s motion to the rotary motion of the crankshaft.
  • Intake Valve: The intake valve, also known as the suction valve, is responsible for allowing the gas to enter the cylinder during the intake stroke. It opens when the pressure in the cylinder drops below the pressure of the gas source.
  • Discharge Valve: The discharge valve, also known as the delivery valve, allows the compressed gas to exit the cylinder during the discharge stroke. It opens when the pressure in the cylinder exceeds the discharge pressure.
  • Cylinder Head: The cylinder head is located at the top of the cylinder and contains the intake and discharge valves. It also helps seal the cylinder, preventing gas leakage.
  • Cooling System: Many reciprocating compressors have a cooling system, such as fins or cooling jackets, to dissipate heat generated during compression. This helps maintain the compressor’s temperature within acceptable limits.
  • Lubrication System: Reciprocating compressors require lubrication to reduce friction and wear between moving parts. Lubricating oil is typically added to the crankcase, and an oil pump circulates the oil to critical components, such as the piston and connecting rod.
  • Pressure Relief Valve: A pressure relief valve is a safety device that prevents the compressor from over-pressurizing by releasing excess pressure. It is set to open at a predetermined pressure level.
  • Suction and Discharge Lines: These are pipes or tubes that connect the compressor to the system being pressurized or to other components in the process. The suction line brings in the gas to be compressed, while the discharge line carries the compressed gas to its destination.
  • Control System: Modern reciprocating compressors often include a control system that monitors and regulates the compressor’s operation. This can include features like variable speed drives, capacity control mechanisms, and safety interlocks.

These components work in synchronization to facilitate the compression of gases in a reciprocating compressor. The piston’s reciprocating motion, driven by the crankshaft, creates cycles of intake, compression, discharge, and exhaust strokes, allowing the compressor to increase the pressure of the gas as it moves through the system. Proper maintenance and operation of these components are crucial to the reliable and efficient performance of reciprocating compressors.

reciprocation compressor

Applications of reciprocating compressors

Reciprocating compressors are versatile machines with a wide range of applications in various industries due to their ability to deliver high-pressure ratios and handle different types of gases. Here are some common applications of reciprocating compressors:

Natural Gas Compression:

Reciprocating compressors are extensively used in the oil and gas industry to compress natural gas for transportation through pipelines or for storage. They are critical for maintaining the pressure needed to move gas over long distances.

Petrochemical and Chemical Industries:

These compressors are used for various processes in the petrochemical and chemical industries, including the compression of gases for chemical reactions, as well as the handling of volatile and hazardous gases.

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:

Reciprocating compressors are commonly found in residential and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration systems. They are used to compress refrigerant gases, which then undergo phase changes to provide cooling.

Industrial Refrigeration:

In industrial settings, reciprocating compressors are used in large refrigeration systems for applications such as food processing, cold storage, and beverage production.

Compressed Air Systems:

These compressors play a vital role in providing compressed air for various industrial processes, such as pneumatic tools, manufacturing, and packaging.

Mining and Construction:

Reciprocating compressors power pneumatic tools and equipment used in mining and construction activities, including jackhammers, rock drills, and pneumatic drills.

Power Plants:

They are used in power plants for processes like starting gas turbines or providing compressed air for combustion. Reciprocating compressors can also be part of natural gas-fired power generation systems.

Hydrogen Compression:

The hydrogen industry relies on reciprocating compressors for the compression and transportation of hydrogen gas used in various applications, including fuel cells and industrial processes.

High-Pressure Testing:

These compressors are used for high-pressure testing of components and equipment in industries like aerospace, automotive, and manufacturing.

Marine Applications:

Reciprocating compressors can be found on ships and submarines for various purposes, including starting diesel engines, providing compressed air for divers, and controlling ballast systems.

Gas Storage Facilities:

They are used to fill and maintain the pressure in gas storage facilities, such as underground storage caverns and tanks.

Food and Beverage Industry:

In food and beverage processing, reciprocating compressors are used for applications like carbonation of beverages, packaging, and maintaining the integrity of food products during processing and storage.

Advantages and disadvantages of reciprocating compressors

Reciprocating compressors offer several advantages and disadvantages, depending on the application and specific requirements. Here’s a breakdown of the pros and cons of reciprocating compressors:

Advantages of Reciprocating Compressors:
  1. High Pressure Ratios: Reciprocating compressors are capable of achieving high compression ratios, making them suitable for applications requiring high-pressure gases.
  2. Wide Range of Capacities: They are available in a wide range of capacities, from small units for residential air conditioning to large units for industrial processes.
  3. Efficiency: Reciprocating compressors can be highly efficient when properly designed and operated, especially in applications with varying load demands.
  4. Durability: They are known for their robust construction and long operational life, especially in heavy-duty applications.
  5. Control: These compressors offer precise control over compression, making them suitable for processes that require specific pressure and flow rate control.
  6. Suitability for Various Gases: Reciprocating compressors can handle a wide range of gases, including corrosive and hazardous gases, making them versatile for various industries.
  7. Reliability: With proper maintenance, reciprocating compressors can provide reliable operation over extended periods.
  8. Cost-Effective for Certain Applications: In some cases, reciprocating compressors can be more cost-effective than other types of compressors, especially for smaller capacity requirements.
Disadvantages of Reciprocating Compressors:
  1. High Vibration and Noise: These compressors can produce significant vibration and noise, which may require additional noise and vibration isolation measures in sensitive environments.
  2. Complex Maintenance: Reciprocating compressors require regular maintenance, including lubrication, valve replacements, and piston ring maintenance, which can be labor-intensive.
  3. Limited Flow Rates: Compared to other compressor types like centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors may have limitations on the maximum flow rates they can handle.
  4. Less Energy-Efficient at Part-Load: In applications with variable load demands, reciprocating compressors can be less energy-efficient at part-load conditions compared to some other compressor types.
  5. Large Footprint: Large-capacity reciprocating compressors can have a relatively large footprint, which may be a concern in space-constrained installations.
  6. Maintenance Sensitivity: Proper maintenance is crucial for their performance and longevity. Neglecting maintenance can lead to reduced efficiency and increased downtime.
  7. Higher Initial Costs: In some cases, the initial purchase and installation costs of reciprocating compressors can be higher than those of other compressor types.
  8. Oil Carryover: In lubricated reciprocating compressors, there is a risk of oil carryover into the compressed gas, which can be problematic in certain applications.

Choosing a reciprocating compressor

Selecting the right reciprocating compressor for a specific application involves careful consideration of various factors to ensure optimal performance, efficiency, and reliability. Here are key factors to consider when choosing a reciprocating compressor:

  1. Capacity Requirements:
    • Determine the required flow rate (expressed in cubic feet per minute, CFM, or liters per second) and pressure (expressed in psi, bar, or kPa) for your application. The compressor’s capacity should meet or exceed these requirements.
  2. Gas Composition:
    • Consider the type of gas or mixture of gases the compressor will handle. Some gases may be corrosive, flammable, or require special materials and coatings for the compressor components.
  3. Compression Ratio:
    • Calculate the compression ratio, which is the ratio of the discharge pressure to the suction pressure. Ensure the selected compressor can achieve the desired compression ratio without excessive power consumption or overheating.
  4. Temperature and Ambient Conditions:
    • Evaluate the temperature and ambient conditions where the compressor will operate. Compressors should be rated for the expected temperature range and environmental factors such as humidity and dust.
  5. Continuous or Intermittent Duty:
    • Determine if the compressor will operate continuously or intermittently. Some compressors are designed for heavy-duty continuous operation, while others are better suited for intermittent use.
  6. Efficiency Requirements:
    • Assess the desired level of energy efficiency, as this can impact operating costs. Modern reciprocating compressors may offer features like variable speed drives (VSD) or multi-stage compression for improved efficiency.
  7. Noise and Vibration:
    • Consider noise and vibration levels, especially if the compressor will be located in a noise-sensitive or residential area. Noise reduction measures or vibration isolation may be necessary.
  8. Space Constraints:
    • Evaluate the available space for installation. Reciprocating compressors can have a relatively large footprint, so ensure there’s enough room for the compressor and associated equipment.
  9. Maintenance and Accessibility:
    • Assess ease of access for maintenance tasks such as changing valves, piston rings, and lubrication. Consider the compressor’s maintenance requirements and frequency.
  10. Power Supply:
    • Ensure that the power supply (voltage, phase, and frequency) matches the compressor’s electrical requirements. It’s essential to have the proper electrical infrastructure in place.
  11. Cost Considerations:
    • Compare the initial purchase price, installation costs, and long-term operating costs, including energy consumption and maintenance expenses, to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the compressor.
  12. Regulatory Compliance:
    • Verify that the chosen compressor complies with local and international regulations and standards relevant to your industry and application, including safety and environmental requirements.
  13. Manufacturer Reputation and Support:
    • Choose a reputable manufacturer with a history of producing reliable compressors. Consider the availability of spare parts and technical support.
  14. Control and Automation:
    • Assess the control options available with the compressor. Some models offer advanced control systems for efficient operation and integration into automation systems.
  15. Future Expansion:
    • Consider the potential for future capacity expansion. Select a compressor that can accommodate increased demand without significant modifications or replacements.
  16. Safety Features:
    • Ensure the compressor includes essential safety features like pressure relief valves, temperature sensors, and emergency shutdown systems.

By carefully evaluating these factors and consulting with compressor experts or manufacturers, you can make an informed decision when selecting a reciprocating compressor that best meets your specific needs and requirements.

Common issues and troubleshooting tips for reciprocating compressors

Reciprocating compressors, like all mechanical systems, can experience various issues during operation. Here are some common problems that can occur with reciprocating compressors and troubleshooting tips to address them:

Excessive Vibration and Noise:

  • Possible Causes: Misalignment, worn or damaged bearings, loose components, unbalanced rotating parts.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Check for misalignment and realign components as necessary.
    • Inspect and replace worn or damaged bearings.
    • Tighten loose bolts and fasteners.
    • Balance rotating components like the crankshaft and connecting rod.
Low Compression Efficiency:
  • Possible Causes: Worn or damaged piston rings, cylinder walls, or valves, leaking valves, inadequate lubrication, excessive clearance, or fouling in the cylinder.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Inspect and replace worn or damaged piston rings or valves.
    • Check for valve leaks and repair or replace as needed.
    • Ensure proper lubrication and adjust the lubrication system if necessary.
    • Measure and adjust piston-to-cylinder clearance.
    • Clean or replace fouled cylinders or components.


  • Possible Causes: Inadequate cooling, excessive load, poor ventilation, or insufficient lubrication.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Verify that the cooling system is functioning correctly, and clean or replace cooling components if needed.
    • Reduce the load or capacity if the compressor is operating beyond its designed limits.
    • Improve ventilation in the compressor room.
    • Ensure proper lubrication and adjust the lubrication system as required.
Oil Carryover:
  • Possible Causes: Excessive lubrication oil entering the compressed gas, worn piston rings, or damaged oil separators.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Check and adjust the lubrication system to prevent over-oiling.
    • Inspect and replace worn piston rings or damaged oil separators.
Pressure Drop or Loss:
  • Possible Causes: Leaking valves, damaged gaskets, restrictions in intake or discharge lines, or malfunctioning pressure relief valves.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Inspect and replace leaking valves, gaskets, or seals.
    • Remove restrictions in intake or discharge lines.
    • Test and replace malfunctioning pressure relief valves.
Excessive Energy Consumption:
  • Possible Causes: Inefficient operation, worn components, or inadequate maintenance.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Evaluate the overall system for efficiency improvements, such as the use of variable speed drives.
    • Perform regular maintenance, including cleaning, lubrication, and component inspections.
Abnormal Noise During Operation:
  • Possible Causes: Loose or damaged components, misalignment, or mechanical issues.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Carefully inspect the compressor for loose or damaged components and tighten or replace as necessary.
    • Check for misalignment and realign components.
    • Inspect for any foreign objects or debris inside the compressor.
Oil Contamination:
  • Possible Causes: Contaminated lubricating oil, leakage from the crankcase, or improper lubrication system operation.
  • Troubleshooting:
    • Ensure that the lubricating oil is clean and free from contaminants.
    • Address any leaks from the crankcase.
    • Verify proper operation of the lubrication system.

It’s essential to perform routine maintenance and monitor the performance of your reciprocating compressor to detect issues early and prevent more severe problems. Additionally, consult the manufacturer’s maintenance guidelines and consider professional assistance if you encounter complex issues or require specialized expertise.

Important code and standards for reciprocating compressor

When it comes to the design, installation, and operation of reciprocating compressors, various codes and standards are in place to ensure safety, reliability, and compliance with industry best practices. The specific codes and standards applicable to reciprocating compressors may vary depending on the industry and region. Here are some important codes and standards commonly referenced for reciprocating compressors:

  1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC):
    • ASME BPVC provides guidelines for the design, construction, inspection, and testing of pressure vessels, including compressors. The relevant sections include Section VIII (Pressure Vessels) and Section I (Power Boilers).
  2. API Standards:
    • The American Petroleum Institute (API) has several standards applicable to compressors, including API 618 (Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services) and API 674 (Positive Displacement Pumps—Reciprocating).
  3. ISO Standards:
    • The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has standards that apply to compressors, including ISO 13631 (Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries—Design and Operation of Reciprocating Compressors) and ISO 6183 (Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries—Reciprocating Compressors).
Grow Mechanical