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Guide to Different Types of Welding Techniques

Guide to Different Types of Welding Techniques

Are you interested in learning about the different welding techniques? Look no further! In this comprehensive guide, we will take you on a journey through the world of welding, exploring various techniques and their applications. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced welder looking to broaden your knowledge, this article will equip you with the necessary information to make informed decisions. From the commonly used MIG and TIG welding methods to lesser-known options like flux-cored arc welding and plasma arc welding, we will cover them all. Each technique will be explained in detail, outlining their strengths, limitations, and recommended applications. You will also discover tips and tricks for achieving high-quality welds, along with safety considerations to ensure a smooth and secure welding experience. Join us as we delve into the nuances of welding techniques and uncover the secrets to creating strong and lasting bonds. Gain the confidence to tackle any welding project and see your skills flourish. Let’s dive into the world of welding together!

Types of welding

Welding is a technique used to forge and join two pieces of metal together. In welding heat & pressure are applied to the metal pieces to melt them and in turn fuse them together. The welding process requires electric arc, resistance or pressure based on the types of welding chosen. There are many types of welding methods out there. But six types are considered important and used throughout the world in most of the case.
They are

  1. Solid state welding
  2. Resistance welding
  3. Arc welding
  4. Oxy fuel welding
  5. Brazing &
  6. Soldering

These 6 types can be classified into many more welding types. We will discuss only the six types of
welding in this guide.

Solid state welding

Solid state welding doesn’t require any electric flow or electrodes to fuse the metal. In this method coalescence is gained without applying heat and melting the metal. Instead, only pressure is employed to join the pieces of metal together. In this process two pieces of metal are inserted into a specially designed machine and pressure is applied. As a result the atom of the metals interface diffuses and bond together. This process is used in joining wires, and thin metals mostly.

  1. The final weld or bonding is free from any defects like porosity, inclusions and spatters
  2. Mechanical properties of parent metal and work pieces don’t mutate or altered
  3. No consumables are required (Like filler rod, electrodes or gas)

Equipment’s can be expensive and requires expertise to run them perfectly
Thorough metal preparation is required
There are 6 types of solid state welding and they are

Explosive welding

  1. Cold welding
  2. Forge welding
  3. Hot pressure welding
  4. Friction welding and
  5. Ultrasonic welding

Resistance welding

In resistance welding method electric currents is run through the metal work pieces and when required heat is generated, it melts the resistance points (edges of metal to be joined) and consequently faying the points together. Here pressure is applied during and after the process begins. This type of welding is used to join sheet metals mostly.

  1. Requires no consumables
  2. Very cost effective
  3. Different metals can be welded together


  1. For highly conductive metals, this method is not suitable
  2. High voltage of power is required

There are five types of resistance welding method. They are

  1. Flash butt welding
  2. Resistance butt welding
  3. Spot welding
  4. Resistance Seam welding &
  5. Resistance projection welding
Arc welding

Arc welding method is a famous and mostly used method of welding across the world. In this method heat is generated through applying electric current from a power source. When an arc is created due to the current flow to the electrodes, it melts the metal pieces and join them together after solidified. Here positive current is applied to electrode and negative to the base metal. As a result electric circuit is
completed and an arc is produced at the tip of the electrode.


  1. All types of metal can be welded in this process
  2. All thickness of metal can be joined through the process
  3. Require less electricity to weld


  1. It requires consumables which increases cost
  2. It can be dangerous if proper safety precaution is not maintained

There are 7 types of arc welding. They are

  1. GMAW (Mig welding)
  2. FCAW (Flux core welding)
  3. SMAW (Stick welding)
  4. GTAW (Tig welding)
  5. Stud welding
  6. Plasma arc welding
  7. Submerge arc welding

Oxy-fuel as welding

Oxy-fuel gas welding also known as oxy-acetylene welding which is basically combustion of oxygen and acetylene gas. This two gases are mixed together in a specific proportion and used in a hand held torch that in turn produces hot flames. These flames can cut any metal and join metals by heating and melting the pieces. The flames temperature can reach 3200 degree centigrade which is enough even to melt the aluminum and stainless steel. You can change the flames temperature just by adjusting the chemical components or gas (oxygen & acetylene). The main difference between oxy-fuel and other techniques is source of heat. In oxy fuel welding, heat is generated from flames while others are from electric source.

  1. It requires lesser technical skills compared to other welding methods
  2. It requires less equipment’s so it is cheaper than other types
  3. Any metals (ferrous or non-ferrous) can be welded using the technique
  4. The heat can be controlled and adjusted easily
  1. It produces lesser heat compared to arc welding
  2. Impurities can make the weld fragile in this method while welding in open dirty space
  3. Not suitable for thick metals

There are 4 types of oxy fuel welding. They are

  1. Propane
  2. Propylene
  3. Acetylene &
  4. Methylacetylene-Propadiene


Brazing is a unique type of welding technique where a filler metal is melted to join base metal to work piece. Here filler metal has lower melting point than the base metal. Brazing doesn’t require to melt the base or work metal instead the filler itself become a part of the work piece metal. Brazing is used where mechanical properties of metal need to be kept unaltered. Brazing is used mostly to join silver or other similar metals together.


  1. Mechanical properties of metals remain unchanged
  2. Can join different or dissimilar metals
  3. Easy to apply
  4. No need to apply high voltage heat to melt the base and work metal
  5. Cost effective


Filler metal is must for the process which can increase the cost for accessories

  1. Sometimes joins are not that strong as other methods
  2. Not suitable for joining rusty metals

There five types of brazing. They are-

  1. Dip brazing
  2. Furnace brazing
  3. Resistance brazing
  4. Induction brazing
  5. Torch brazing


Soldering is metal joining process where a low melting point filler metal is used to join the metals. This filler metal is called solder. And while heat is employed, the filler metal melts and become a part of the metal. It can sound like brazing but there are a lot of differences between brazing and soldering. The major difference is the temperature employed. In soldering melting of the filler metal requires only 840 degree F temperature while brazing requires fur more heat to get melted. Furthermore, soldering is used in electric circuit board mostly to join the connection wire. Besides soldering is used to join stained glass and light sheet metal.


  1. It requires lower voltage and current flow to work
  2. It can be used to join most of the metals and non-metal elements
  3. Easy to use and learn. Require less skill than other welding techniques
  4. Soldering can be disjointed easily without making any damage to the metal


Joints are weaker than any other welding techniques

  1. Not suitable for thicker metals
  2. Not suitable for metals require high melting point
  3. Soldering may produce toxic flux residue

There are two types of soldering. They are

  1. Soft soldering &
  2. Hard soldering
Final words

Though there are seven basic types of welding methods, we can find many more welding methods today as the technology is improving every day. Today we can use automatic welding techniques for better quality and precision. Even laser welding is getting popular now a days. But these 7 welding techniques are the base and all other welding techniques that have been introduced and will be introduced in future, comes under these basic methods. So for beginners it is important to learn about the welding types while starting to learn welding.

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